New Brunswick is one of the Atlantic Provinces of Canada. It lies between Quebec and Nova Scotia. New Brunswick’s eastern border faces the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. Its southern border faces the Bay of Fundy. The state of Maine, in the United States, lies to the west.
Fredericton is the capital of New Brunswick. It lies along the St. John River in the southwestern part of the province. Saint John, New Brunswick’s largest city and most important center of industry, lies on the Bay of Fundy. It is also a major Canadian port.
The western half of New Brunswick is made up mostly of forest-covered highlands. Rivers flow quickly through steep valleys in this region. The longest is the St. John River. Most of eastern New Brunswick is a flat area with lots of marshes. Marshes are land areas that are under water most of the time.
Along the coastline are deep bays and sharp inlets. Inlets are narrow arms of the sea that stick into the land.
The Bay of Fundy has some of the highest tides in the world. Tides are changes in sea level. Sometimes a wall of water more than 50 feet (15 meters) high rushes into the rivers here. The world average tide is 30 inches (76 centimeters). The rushing water of these tides has created weird rock formations along the coast.
Resources and products
New Brunswick’s forests and minerals are its most important natural resources. Balsam fir and spruce trees are cut for lumber. Some of the timber is used in paper products.
Huge amounts of copper, lead, silver, and zinc lie in northeastern New Brunswick. Southeastern New Brunswick is rich in potash. Potash is used for making fertilizer.
Fishing is also a major industry in the province. Large fishing fleets on the Bay of Fundy and the Gulf of St. Lawrence catch clams, crabs, herring, lobster, mackerel, scallops, and shrimp.
Most of New Brunswick’s farms are in the river valleys. The land there has good grass for feeding cattle. Potatoes and milk are the most valuable farm products. Farmers also plant apples, barley, blueberries, hay, oats, and vegetables. Food-processing plants make frozen potatoes, fish and dairy products, and packaged meats.