Colombia flagColombia <<kuh LUHM bee uh>> is a rustic in northwestern South America. It’s the fourth largest nation in South America, and solely Brazil has extra individuals. Colombia borders Panama within the northwest. This border is the place the place North America is related to South America. To the east of Panama, the coast of Colombia lies alongside the Caribbean Sea. To the west of Panama, the coast lies alongside the Pacific Ocean. Colombia additionally borders Venezuela, Brazil, Peru, and Ecuador.

Colombia lies on the equator—an imaginary line round Earth’s center, midway between the North and South poles. Within the east of the nation, the place it’s hottest, there are grassy plains and tropical forests, and few individuals. Port cities similar to Cartagena, giant farms, and cattle ranches are discovered alongside the cooler and drier Caribbean Beach within the north. Excessive within the mountains, it’s chilly. Most Colombians reside within the west, across the valleys and rivers on the foot of the snow-topped Andes Mountains. The valleys have a light local weather and good soil for crops.


The ancestors of most Colombians have been Indians, Europeans—often from Spain—or Africans. Many Colombians are mestizos, who’re each Indian and European, or mulattoes, who’re each African and European. Almost all Colombians converse Spanish, and most are Roman Catholics.

Most properly-to-do Colombians reside in cities, the place tall workplace and condo buildings tower over previous, Spanish-fashion homes with purple tile roofs. Nation individuals typically construct homes from mud bricks or palm leaves. Many poor individuals have moved to cities, hoping to seek out work. They stay in slums across the metropolis edges.

Assets and merchandise

Espresso is Colombia’s most essential crop. The nation grows about an eighth of all of the world’s espresso. Most factories in Colombia are in or close to Bogotá, the capital metropolis, or the cities of Medellín and Cali. Mining is a rising business. Colombia sells petroleum and coal to different nations, and mines virtually all the world’s emeralds.

Historical past

Colombia mapIndians lived in Colombia lengthy earlier than Spain began a colony there in 1525. The Spaniards named their colony the New Kingdom of Granada. They pressured the Indians to work for them, and in addition introduced in black slaves from Africa. Within the early 1800’s, the Venezuelan basic Simón Bolívar gained a struggle of independence. Colombia turned a free republic in 1819. It was named in honor of Christopher Columbus and was a lot bigger than it’s immediately.

Colombia has had an elected authorities for many of its historical past. However there has typically been violence amongst members of the key political events who disagree on methods to govern. As we speak there’s nonetheless violence as the federal government fights rebels and wealthy and highly effective drug smugglers.

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